II c) Behavior and wellbeing

Pj. Aija Logren

A meta-analysis of the common sense model of illness self-regulation

Martin Hagger1, Severine Koch2, Nikos L. D. Chatziusarantis2, Sheina Orbell3

1University of Jyväskylä and Curtin University

2Curtin University

3University of Essex

Illness beliefs are important factors that may affect how chronic illness sufferers cope with their illness and their prognosis, effective management and recovery from illness. A prominent approach to understanding relations between beliefs, coping and outcomes is provided by the common sense model of illness self-regulation (CSM). In the current research, we tested a process model derived from the CSM, in which relations between illness beliefs and outcomes are mediated by coping strategies. The model was tested across synthesized findings from multiple studies using meta-analytic path analysis. Studies adopting the CSM in chronic illness (k=254) identified in a database search were subjected to random-effects meta-analysis. Path analyses based on the meta-analytic correlations supported a process model with direct effects of illness representations on outcomes and indirect effects mediated by coping. Emotional representations and control beliefs were consistently related to illness-related and functional outcomes via, respectively, lower and greater employment of coping strategies to manage symptoms or treatment. Representations signalling threat (consequences, identity) had positive and negative indirect effects on outcomes through problem- and emotion-focused coping strategies. Threatening illness perceptions were associated with maladaptive coping (avoidance, emotion venting) and outcomes, but were also related to adaptive outcomes through problem-focused coping. Perceived control over illness was associated with adaptive outcomes through problem-focused coping. Findings have assisted in the development of a revised common sense model and provide some guidelines on developing better interventions to promote coping with chronic illness.


Application of the Behaviour Change Wheel and the Theoretical Domains Framework

Ritva Horppu1, Kari-Pekka Martimo1, Eira Viikari-Juntura1


Application of the Behaviour Change Wheel and the Theoretical Domains Framework in enhancing occupational physicians use of temporary work modifications in return to work   Supporting staying at work and early return to work is a central task for occupational physicians (OPs). In this, temporary work modifications (TWMs) are useful as workplace-related interventions. Our prior study showed that OPs practice is influenced by factors related to their personal capability and motivation, and opportunities provided by the physical and social environment.   Our present study applied the TDF and the BCW in implementing an educational intervention to enhance the use of TWMs among OPs. We conducted a non-randomised qualitative study. Six OPs involved in a larger research project participated in the intervention. The intervention consisted of two individual interviews, an e-learning course, and a workshop. During the first interviews, the participants described their present practice. When asked in the second interview, some participants reported changed practice. Practice change had come about through increased 1) capability: gaining new knowledge, remembering the practice, recognizing need for change through reflecting on present practice; 2) motivation: work role and related duties had changed, conceptions of the benefits of new practice were modified; 3) opportunities: serving new client company with altered expectations of OPs practice, better resources to apply TWMs. Increased capability, motivation and opportunities led also some OPs to consider making a practice change later.   Study results can be used to inform the development of continuous medical education for physicians.


Does prosocial behavior increase wellbeing? A systematic review & meta-analysis

Touko Kuusi1, Frank Martela1, Keegan Knittle1

1Helsingin yliopisto

Background:   An increasing body of empirical work suggests that the act of giving to others (e.g. acts of kindness, spending money on others, volunteering) is beneficial for an individuals sense of well-being. However contradictory findings and explanations have also been presented.   Objectives:   This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to summarize whether prosocial behavior increases self-reported well-being in randomized controlled laboratory and field experiments in adult participants. Secondarily, it assessed the effects of moderators.   Methods:   We searched PsycINFO, Scopus and 7 other databases through February 2016 for studies that measured well-being within 24 hours of undertaking a prosocial behavior, with no limits on date or publication type.   After selection and data extraction we assessed risk of bias by using Cochrane risk of bias tool. Preliminary random-effects meta-analyses and subgroup analyses were performed.   Preliminary results:   Our meta-analysis included 20 studies with 2425 participants with most studies comparing prosocial behavior against getting a benefit for oneself and measuring affective well-being. We found that in average compared to controls prosocial behavior increased well-being: Hedgess g = 0.314 (0.179, 0.449).  However, the results were heterogeneous, we found signs of publication bias, and studies had either unclear or high risk of bias.   Discussion:   Our preliminary results are in line with the existing literature that prosocial behavior increases subjective/affective well-being. However due to heterogeneity, possible publication bias and risk of bias in studies, considerable uncertainty exists.   Other:   Our pre-registration report is available at PROSPERO: http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.asp?ID=CRD42016036341   No external funding/sponsors


Parentsplanning for physical activity for their pre-school aged children

Kyra Hamilton1, Ralf Schwarzer1

1Freie Universität Berlin

Despite the childhood benefits gained from engaging in adequate physical activity, in Australia preschool-aged children are reported to spend little time being physically active. Parental planning is important to engaging preschool-aged children in physical activity. Behavioral barriers, normative support, and self-efficacy have been identified as key determinants of parental decision making. However, the interplay among these factors are not well understood. The aim of this study was to examine the role of these psycho-social variables on parentsplanning for their preschool-aged childrens physical activity. A survey at two points in time was conducted in 208 Australian parents (n = 139 mothers, Mage = 36.43 years, SD = 5.04; n = 69 fathers, Mage = 36.33 years, SD = 6.5) of children aged between 2 and 5 years. A conditional process analysis was conducted that integrates mediation and moderation analyses. The results showed that planning and behavioral barriers predicted behavior, with a moderation effect also identified; more planning helped compensate for barriers. Normative support predicted both planning and behavior. In addition, an interaction between normative support and self-efficacy emerged. Parents with high self-efficacy engaged in high levels of planning, independent of normative support. Low self-efficacy with low normative support resulted in the lowest amount of planning; however, in the absence of normative support a high level of self-efficacy could compensate for it. Identifying the psycho-social antecedents influencing parentsplanning, interventions can target these variables to test the efficacy of these mechanisms in increasing parentsability to ensure preschool-aged children are active.


Health as a value and its association with health and well-being outcomes

Henrik Dobewall1, Riin Vares2, Toivo Aavik2

1University of Helsinki

2University of Tartu

Background: Health has been found to be very important to most individuals, but findings regarding the association between health values and health and well-being outcomes are inconclusive.  Objectives: The current study examined the correlations between the importance placed on health and health-related quality of life, mental health, physical health, and subjective well-being.  Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional data from 329 healthy Estonian blood donors (74% female, age range 17-64 years). Schwartz’s refined Portrait Values Questionnaire was used, including additional health facets derived from the WHO health definition. Results: Compared to the original higher-order values of Schwartz, health as a value was more strongly associated with health-related quality of life, mental health, and physical health. Associations of health value facets were higher for corresponding health outcomes than for dissimilar ones. Health values, however, were not associated with subjective well-being.  Conclusions: Our findings suggest that placing a high value on health benefits individualshealth. A better understanding of the inter-individual variation in health as a value, in relation to other values, may help to design more efficient interventions.